Gary L. Freed, M.D., M.P.H., Professor and Director
Percy and Mary Murphy Professor of Pediatrics, School of Medicine
Dr. Freed has over 20 years of experience in children’s health services research and has been the principal investigator of numerous federal, state and foundation-funded grants. He has published over 165 peer-reviewed articles on child health policy and health economics, physician behavior and interspecialty variation in the provision of preventive services to children.
He is a past President of the Society for Pediatric Research, the largest research society in the field of child health. Dr. Freed is the 2009 recipient of the Douglas K. Richardson Lifetime Achievement Award for Perinatal and Pediatric Health Care Research from the Society of Pediatric Research. Dr. Freed also serves on several national committees. In 2009, Dr. Freed was appointed to both the Committee on Pediatric Health and Health Care Quality Measures at the Institute of Medicine, and the Council on Management Information Services of the National Association of Children’s Hospitals and Related Institutions.
He is a past Chair of the Department of Health and Human Services National Vaccine Advisory Committee. He is a frequent consultant to state and federal agencies as well as the Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences and the World Health Organization. He is a member of the American Board of Pediatrics and a Fellow of the American Academy of Pediatrics.
B.A., Biology, The University of Texas at Austin, 1983, with honors
M.D., Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, 1987
M.P.H., University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC-CH), 1992
Robert Wood Johnson Clinical Scholars Program, UNC-CH, 1990-1992
Neonatal nurse practitioners: Influences on Career Choice.
J Nurse Pract, 2013 [In press]
Changes in longer consultations for children in general practice.
J Peds Child Health Care. 2012 [In press]
Availability of child passenger safety resources to emergency physicians practicing in emergency departments within pediatric, adult, and non-trauma centers: a national survey.
Pediatric Emergency Care. [In press]
Child passenger restraints in relation to other second row passengers: an analysis of the 2007-2009 national survey of the use of booster seats.
Traffic Inj Prev [In press]
Associations between physician financial incentives and prescribing of anti-Asthmatic medications in children in U.S. outpatient settings.
J Child Health Care. 2012 [In press]
Intergenerational enrollment and expenditure changes in Medicaid: trends from 1991 to 2005.
BMC Health Serv Res. 2012;12:327.
Resident work hour changes in children‘s hospitals: impact on staffing patterns and workforce needs.
Pediatrics. Oct 2012;130(4):700-704.
Changes in the demography of Australia and of general practitioner patient populations.
Aust Fam Physician. Sept 2012;41(9):715-719.
Child passenger safety practices in the U.S.: disparities in light of updated recommendations.
Am J Prev Med. Sep 2012;43(3):272-281.
Use of diagnostic tests in adolescents with essential hypertension.
Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. Jul 23 2012:1-6.
The paediatric clinical experiences of general practice registrars.
Aust Fam Physician. Jul 2012;41(7):529-533.
So you want to be a camp doctor? Everything you need to know about medically supervised summer camps.
Contemp Pediatr. May 2012. [On-line exclusive]
Bariatric surgery decision making challenges: the stability of teens’ decisions and the treatment failure paradox.
Pediatr Surg Int. May 2012;28(5):455-460.
Emergency physician perspectives on child passenger safety: a national survey of attitudes and practices.
Acad Pediatr. Mar 2012;12(2):131-137.
Carpooling and booster seats: a national survey of parents.
Pediatrics. Feb 2012;129(2):290-298.
Antihypertensive Prescribing Patterns for Adolescents with Primary Hypertension.
Pediatrics. Jan 2012;129(1):e1-8.
Driver Report of Improper Seat Belt Position among 4- to 9-year-old Children.
Acad Pediatr. Nov-Dec 2011;11(6):487-492.
Alternative vaccination schedule preference among parents of young children.
Pediatrics. Nov 2011;128(5):848-856.
Challenges to Children's Health Care in an Ageing Australia.
Med J Aust. Oct 17 2011;195(8):436-437.
Private Practice Rates among Pediatric Subspecialists.
Pediatrics. Oct 2011;128(4):673-676.
Nurse Practitioners and Physician Assistants Employed by General and Subspecialty Pediatricians.
Pediatrics. Oct 2011;128(4):665-672.
Challenge to Child Health Services Research: Report From the Committee on Pediatric Health and Health Care Quality Measures.
Acad Pediatr. July - August 2011;11(4):257-259.
Transition of pediatric liver transplant recipients to adult care: patient and parent perspectives.
Pediatr Transplant. Jun 2011;15(4):414-424.
Valuing health at different ages: evidence from a nationally representative survey in the US.
Applied Health Economics and Health Policy. May 1 2011;9(3):149-156.
Sources and perceived credibility of vaccine safety information for parents.
Pediatrics. May 2011;127 Suppl 1:S107-112.
Private-sector vaccine purchase costs and insurer payments: a disincentive for using combination vaccines?
Hum Vaccin. Apr 1 2011;7(4):426-428.
Fathers' depression related to positive and negative parenting behaviors with one-year-old children.
Pediatrics. Apr 2011;127(4):612-618.
Results From a clinical multidisciplinary weight management program.
Clin Pediatr (Phila). Mar 2011;50(3):187-191.
Primary care physician perspectives on providing adult vaccines.
Vaccine. Feb 17 2011;29(9):1850-1854.
Which sources of child health advice do parents follow?
Clin Pediatr. Jan 2011;50(1):50-56.
Pediatric nurse practitioners: roles and scope of practice.
Neonatal nurse practitioners: distribution, roles and scope of practice.
Family nurse practitioners: roles and scope of practice in the care of pediatric patients.
Pediatric physician assistants: distribution and scope of practice.
Pediatric nurse practitioners in the United States: current distribution and recent trends in training.
J Pediatr 2010;157(4):589-93.
Longitudinal assessment of the timing of career choice among pediatric residents.
Archives of Pediatric & Adolescent Medicine 2010;164(10):961-4.
Physicians' perspectives on referring obese adolescents to pediatric multidisciplinary weight management programs.
Clin Pediatr. 2010;49(9):871-875.
Differences in pediatric drug information sources used by general versus subspecialist pediatricians.
Clin Pediatr. 2010;49(8):743-749.
Assessment of transition readiness skills and adherence in pediatric liver transplant recipients.
Pediatr Transplant. Jun 27 2010.
Patterns of care are changing: what will the future hold for pediatric practice?
Contemp Pediatr 2010:27(6);6.
Which pediatricians are providing care to America's children? An update on the trends and changes during the past 26 years.
J Pediatr 2010;157(1):148-152.
Perspectives and preferences regarding physician selection and board certification among the general public.
J Pediatr 2010;156(5);841-5.
The expanding vaccine development pipeline, 1995-2008.
To cut or not to cut: physicians’ perspectives on referring adolescents for bariatric surgery.
Obes Surg. 2010;20(7):937-942.
Parental vaccine safety concerns in 2009.
All primary care trainees are not the same: Differences in the role of economic factors and career choice.
Health care utilization by adolescents on Medicaid: Implications for delivering vaccines.
Permanent pediatric diplomate awareness of and perspectives on maintenance of certification.
J Pediatr 2009;155(6):919-23.
The adequacy of the supply of pediatric subspecialists…so near, yet so far.
Arch Pediatr Adol Med 2009;163(12):1160-1.
Financing vaccination of children and adolescents: National Vaccine Advisory Committee recommendations.
Getting heavier, younger: trajectories of obesity over the life course.
Int J Obes (Lond) 2009;33:1330-40.
Basis for immunization recommendations among countries of the World Health Organization’s European Region.
Human Vaccine 5(11):754-760, 2009
Inadequate training in billing and coding as perceived by recent pediatric graduates.
Clin Pediatr 2009;48(9):939-944.
Health plan use of board certification and recertification of surgeons and non-surgical subspecialists in contracting policies.
Arch Surg. 2009; Aug;144(8):753-8.
Assessing the value of pediatric hospitalists programs: The perspective of hospital leaders.
Ambul Pediatr. 2009;9(3):192-6.
National immunization advisory committees of the World Health Organization’s European region.
Oversimplifying primary care supply and shortages.
Formulary coverage for lipid-lowering drugs recommended for children.
Clil Pediatr 2009 Jul;48(6):609-13.
Pediatric hospitalists: Training, current practice and career goals.
J Hosp Med. 2009;Mar;4(3):;157-63.
Characteristics of pediatric hospital medicine fellowships and training programs.
J Hosp Med. 2009;4(3):157-63.
Effect of interhospital transfer on resource utilization and outcomes at a tertiary pediatric intensive care unit.
J Crit Care. Sep 2009;24(3):379-386.
Then and now: Varicella vaccine.
Contemp Pediatr 2009:26(2);28-9.
Adolescent vaccination: Recommendations from the National Vaccine Advisory Committee.
Am J Prev Med. 2009;36(3):278-9.
Use of board certification in ambulatory survey center credentialing: A pilot study.
J Healthc Manag 2009;54(1):31-43.
Protecting the public: State medical board licensure policies for active and inactive physicians.
Clinical inactivity among pediatricians: Prevalence and perspectives.
Recently trained pediatric subspecialists: Perspectives on residency, fellowship, and scope of practice.
Recently trained general pediatricians: Perspectives on residency training and scope of practice.
Pediatric fellows: Perspectives on training and future scope of practice.
General pediatrics resident perspectives on training decisions and career choice.
Medical management of children with primary hypertension by pediatric subspecialists.
Pediatr Nephrol 2009 24:147-153.
Adolescent vaccination: If you build it, will they come?
J Adolesc Health 2008;43(6):523-4.
Variation in provider vaccine purchase prices and payer reimbursement.
Primary care physician perspectives on reimbursement for childhood immunizations.
The need for and creation of a comprehensive pediatric research network.
Paediatr Drugs 2008;10:279-80.
Mandates for adolescent immunizations: Recommendations from the National Vaccine Advisory Committee.
Am J Prev Med 2008;35:145-51.
The promise and challenge of adolescent immunization.
Am J Prev Med 2008:35:152-7.
Characteristics of general and subspecialty pediatricians who choose not to recertify.
The structure and function of immunization advisory committees in Western Europe.
Hum Vaccin 2008;4;292-7.
HPV vaccination: Expected impacts and unresolved issues.
J Pediatr 2008;152:305-9.
Trends in hospitalizations for diabetes among children and young adults: United States, 1993-2004.
Diabetes Care 2007;30:3035-9.
Inactive physicians: The state of our understanding.
J Pediatr 2007;151:431-4.
Expanding the research continuum: From bench to implementation.
Pediatr Res 2007;62:370-3.114.
Lessons from across the pond: What the U.S. can learn from European immunization programs.
Characteristics of the pediatric hospitalist workforce: Its roles and work environment.
Who claims to be a pediatrician?
J Pediatr 2007;150:645-8.
Keeping up with the newborn screening revolution.
Contemp Pediatr 2007;24:36-49.
Measuring African-American parents’ cultural mistrust while in a healthcare setting: a pilot study.
J Natl Med Assoc 2007;99:15-21.
Patient and hospital correlates of clinical outcomes and resource utilization in severe pediatric sepsis.
Reassessing how society prioritizes the health of young people.
Health Aff 2007;26:1-10.
Characteristics and outcomes of inter-hospital transfers from Level II to Level I pediatric intensive care units.
Pediatr Crit Care Med 2006;7:536-40.
A new day in preventing meningococcal disease: Sizing up the available vaccines.
Contemp Pediatr 2006;23:31-9.
Guidelines for adolescent well-care: Is there consensus?
Curr Opin Pediatr 2006;18:365-70.
Comparing perceptions of training for medicine-pediatrics and categorically trained physicians.
Use of a new combined vaccine in pediatric practices.
Pay-for-performance: An overview for pediatrics.
J Pediatr 2006;149:120-4.
Transitioning children with chronic diseases to adult care: Current knowledge, practices and direction.
J Pediatr 2006;148:824-7.
Counting physicians: Inconsistencies in a commonly used source for workforce analysis.
Acad Med 2006;81:847-52.
Hospitalists in children’s hospitals: What we know now and what we need to know.
J Pediatr 2006;148:296-9.
Internal medicine-pediatrics physicians: Their care of children versus care of adults.
Acad Med 2005;80:858-65.
Vaccine policies across the pond: looking at the US and UK systems.
Health Affairs 2005;24:755-7.
Safety concerns regarding combination vaccines: Perspective of select European Countries.
Human Vaccines, 2005;1:1-5.
Hospital decision-making regarding the smallpox pre-event vaccination program.
Biosecur Bioterror 2005;3:23-30.
A national survey of pediatric critical care resources in the United States.
Changes in the proportion and volume of care provided to children by generalists and subspecialists.
J Pediatr 2005;146:14-9.
Hitting the mark . . . sometimes: Improve the accuracy of CPT code distribution.
MGMA Connex 2005;5:39-43.
End-of-life choices for African-American and white infants in a neonatal intensive-care unit: a pilot study.
J Natl Med Assoc 2004;96:933-7.
Safety concerns regarding combination vaccines: The experience in Japan.
Parental perceptions regarding mandatory mouthguard use in competitive youth soccer.
Injury Prevention 2004;10:159-62.
Role of health insurance and a usual source of medical care in age-appropriate vaccination.
Am J Public Health 2004; 94:960-6.
Emergency department use among Michigan children with special health care needs.
Health Services Research 2004;39:665-92.
Criteria for choosing a specific vaccine.
Arch Pediatr Adol Med 2004;158:311.
Risk factors for delay in age-appropriate vaccination.
Public Health Reports 2004;119:144-55.
The impact of the ‘Aging of America’ on children.
Health Affairs 2004;23:168-74.
Prevalence and distribution of corrective lenses among school-age children.
Optometry and Vision Science 2004;81:7-10.
Which physicians are providing health care to America’s children? Trends and changes over the last 20 years.
Arch Pediatr Adol Med 2004;158:22-6.
Parental vaccine safety concerns: the experiences of pediatricians and family physicians.
Am J Prev Med 2004;26:11-4.
One-year uptake of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine: a national survey of family physicians and pediatricians.
J Am Board Fam Pract 2003;16:363-71.
The rationale for productivity-based physician compensation at academic health centers.
J Pediatr 2003;143:695-6.
Predicting the pediatric workforce: Use of trend analysis.
J Pediatr 2003;143:570-5.
Receipt of specialty eye care by children.
Ambul Pediatr 2003;3:270-4.
Vaccine safety policy analysis in three European countries: the case of thimerosal.
Health Policy 2002;62:291-307.
The plague of the Game Boy: An index of suspicion Case.
Pediatrics In Review 2002;23:249-53.
The costs of childhood vaccine purchase in the public sector: past trends, future expectations.
Am J Pub Health 2002;92:1982-7.
Pediatricians’ views on financial barriers and values for pneumococcal vaccine for children.
Ambul Pediatr 2002;2:358-66.
Effect of state vaccine financing strategy on nursery immunization policies.
Ambul Pediatr 2002;2:367-74.
Reimbursement for Prevnar: A modern day version of Hercules and the Hydra.
The process of public policy formulation: The case of thimerosal in vaccines.
Medicaid reimbursement for alternative therapies.
Altern Ther Health Med 2002;8:84-8.
The need for surveillance of delays in age-appropriate vaccination.
Am J Prev Med 2002;23:36-42.
Expected adverse events in a universal smallpox vaccination campaign.
Eff Clin Pract 2002;5:84-90.
Hospitalists and residency medical education: measured improvement. [letter; comment].
Arch Pediatr Adol Med 2002;156:858-9.
Challenges in the development of pediatric health services research.
J Pediatr 2002;140:1-2.
Brief report: Physicians’ early challenges related to the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine.
Ambul Pediatr 2001;1:302-5.
Hepatitis B vaccination practices in hospital newborn nurseries before and after changes in vaccination recommendations.
Arch Ped Adolesc Med 2001;155:915-20.
A new paradigm in academic health centers: Productivity-based physician compensation.
Med Group Manage J 2001;48:44-54.
Applying clinical guidelines to pediatric practice.
Pediatr Ann 2001;30:274-82.
Preventive Service Delivery for Children in a Managed Care Environment: Contrasts and Lessons from Israel.
Health Policy 2000;55:209-25.
State-level perspectives on immunization policies, practices, and program financing in the 1990s.
Am J Prev Med 2000;19:32-44.
Measuring immunization coverage.
Am J Prev Med 2000;19:79-89.
Pediatrician and family physician prescription of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors.
Resident physicians’ knowledge of breast-feeding and infant growth.
Parental knowledge, attitudes, and demand regarding a vaccine to prevent varicella.
Am J Prev Med 1999;17:153-5.
Adopting immunization recommendations: A new dissemination model.
Matern Child Health J 1999;2:231-9.
Impact of North Carolina’s universal vaccine purchase program by children’s insurance status.
Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 1999;153:748-54.
Influences on the receipt of well-child visits in the first two years of life.
Age-appropriate immunization laws: a randomized trial of information dissemination.
Amb Child Health 1999;5:43-51.
Use of public immunization services after initiation of universal vaccine purchase.
Arch Ped Adolesc Med 1998;152:642-5.
Vaccine-associated liability risk and provider immunization practices.
Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 1998;152:285-9.
Disseminating pediatric immunization recommendations: the physician perspective.
Amb Child Health 1998;4:265-76.
Hepatitis-B-impfung: Kenntnisse und akzeptanz bei schweizer äzten./Vaccination contre l’hépatite B: Opinions et connaissances des médecins suisses.
Sozial-Präventivmedizin 1998;43(S1);57-60 (German), 130-3 (French).
Enforcement of age-appropriate immunization laws.
Am J Prev Med 1998;14:118-21.
Impact of a new universal purchase vaccine program in North Carolina.
Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 1997;151:1117-24.
Challenges to private provider participation in immunization registries.
Am J Prev Med 1997;13:66-70.
Factors affecting physicians’ early adoption of combined DTP-Hib vaccine.
Amb Child Health 1997;3:27-33.
Sources of immunization information for physicians.
Amb Child Health 1997;2:329-37.
Safety of Vaccinations: Miss America, the media, and public health.
Advising breastfeeding mothers when they become ill.
Contemp OB/GYN 1996;41:43-54.
Pediatrician and family physician agreement with and adoption of universal hepatitis B immunization.
J Fam Pract 1996;42:587-92.
Methods and outcomes of breastfeeding instruction for nursing students.
J Hum Lact 1996;12:105-10.
Educating ourselves about breastfeeding.
Focus & Opinion: Pediatrics 1996;2:196-206.
Variation in patient charges for vaccines and well-child care.
Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 1996;150:421-6.
Breastfeeding and maternal illness.
Contemp Ped 1996;13:49-61.
The Vaccines For Children program: Issues of physician accountability and patient verification.
J Pub Health Manag Pract 1996;2:12-7.
Breast-feeding education of obstetrics-gynecology residents and practitioners.
Am J Obstet Gynecol 1995;173:1607-13.
Pediatrician involvement in breast-feeding promotion: A national study of residents and practitioners.
Reform of child immunization service delivery in Israel.
Breastfeeding education and practice in family medicine.
J Fam Pract 1995;40:263-9.
Factors responsible for immunization referrals to health departments in North Carolina.
Universal hepatitis B immunization of infants: Reactions of pediatricians and family physicians over time.
Wegener's granulomatosis presenting as fever of unknown origin.
Clin Pediatr 1994;33:162-5.
The Comprehensive Childhood Immunization Act of 1993: Toward a more rational approach.
N Engl J Med 1993;329:1957-60.
Breastfeeding counseling practices of family practice residents.
Fam Med 1993;25:254-9.
Accuracy of expectant mothers' predictions of fathers' attitudes regarding breastfeeding.
J Fam Pract 1993;37:148-52.
Effect of expectant mothers' feeding plan on prediction of fathers' attitudes regarding breastfeeding.
Am J Perinatol 1993;10:300-3.
Childhood immunization programs: An analysis of policy issues.
Milbank Q 1993;71:65-96.
Breastfeeding: Time to teach what we preach.
Assessment of pediatric housestaff attitudes and education toward breastfeeding.
So Med J 1992;85:483-5.
A practical guide to successful breastfeeding management.
Am J Dis Child 1991;145:917-21.
Adoption of a new Haemophilus influenzae, type b vaccine recommendation.
Am J Dis Child 1993;147:124-8.
Family physician acceptance of universal hepatitis B immunization of infants.
J Fam Pract 1993;36:153-7.
Prenatal determination of demographic and attitudinal factors regarding feeding practice in an indigent population.
Am J Perinatol 1992;9:420-4.
Prenatal attitudes of fathers regarding breastfeeding.