faculty investigators

Gary Freed

Gary L. Freed, M.D., M.P.H.

Percy and Mary Murphy Professor of Pediatrics, School of Medicine
Professor of Health Management and Policy, School of Public Health

300 North Ingalls 6D18
Ann Arbor, MI 48109-5456

Office: 734-615-0616; Fax: 734-764-2599

E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Curriculum Vitae

Biography, Education, Peer-Reviewed Publications

Biography

Gary L. Freed MD, MPH is the Percy and Mary Murphy Professor of Pediatrics in the School of Medicine and Professor of Health Management and Policy in the School of Public Health at the University of Michigan.

On July 1, 2013, after 15 years of service, Dr. Freed stepped down as Director of the Division of General Pediatrics and Director of the Children's Health Evaluation and Research (CHEAR) Unit. He continues to serve as the Senior Advisor to leadership of CHEAR and General Pediatrics. On July 1, 2013 Dr. Freed accepted the position of Director of the Australian Health Workforce Institute, Professor of Population Health at the University of Melbourne and as Visiting Scholar in Health Care Policy at the Royal Children's Hospital. He currently divides his time between Melbourne Australia and Ann Arbor, MI.

Dr. Freed has over 25 years of experience in children's health services research and has been the principal investigator of numerous federal, state and foundation-funded grants, and the first NIH-funded pediatric health services research fellowship program. He has published over 200 peer-reviewed articles on child health policy and health economics, immunizations, physician behavior, the medical workforce and interspecialty variation in the provision of preventive services to children.

Dr. Freed received his bachelor's degree from The University of Texas at Austin, his medical degree from Baylor College of Medicine in Houston and his master of public health from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC-CH). Dr. Freed was a Robert Wood Johnson Clinical Scholar as well as a Preventive Medicine Fellow at UNC-CH.

He is a past President of the Society for Pediatric Research, the largest research society in the field of child health. Dr. Freed is the 2009 recipient of the Douglas K. Richardson Lifetime Achievement Award for Perinatal and Pediatric Health Care Research from the Society of Pediatric Research. Dr. Freed also serves on several national and international committees regarding child health. He is a past Chair of the Department of Health and Human Services National Vaccine Advisory Committee. He is a frequent consultant to state and federal agencies as well as the Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences and the World Health Organization. He is a member of the American Board of Pediatrics and a Fellow of the American Academy of Pediatrics.

Education

B.A., Biology, The University of Texas at Austin, 1983, with honors
M.D., Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, 1987
M.P.H., University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC-CH), 1992
Robert Wood Johnson Clinical Scholars Program, UNC-CH, 1990-1992

Peer-Reviewed Publications

Freed GL, Dunham KM, Moran LM, Spera L, McGuinness GA, Stevenson DK.
Pediatric subspecialty fellowship clinical training project: current fellows.
Pediatrics. [In press]

Freed GL, Dunham KM, Moran LM, Spera L, McGuinness GA, Stevenson DK.
Pediatric subspecialty fellowship clinical training project: recent graduates and midcareer survey comparison.
Pediatrics. [In press]

Freed GL, Dunham KM, Moran LM, Spera L, McGuinness GA, Stevenson DK.
Fellowship program directors perspectives on fellowship training.
Pediatrics. [In press]

Freed GL, Dunham KM, Moran LM, Spera L, McGuinness GA, Stevenson DK.
Specialty specific comparisons regarding perspectives on fellowship training.
Pediatrics. [In press]

Riebschleiger MP, McGuinness GA, Currin L, Althouse L, Freed GL.
Non-completion in pediatric rheumatology fellowships.
JGME. [In press]

 

 

Macy ML, Cunningham RM, Resnick K, Freed GL.
Potential distractions and unsafe driving behaviors among drivers of 1- to 12-year old children.
Academic Pediatrics. [In press]

Macy ML, Cunningham RM, Resnick K, Freed GL.
Disparities in age-appropriate child passenger restraint use among children age 1 to 12 years.
Pediatrics. [In press]

Freed GL, Dunham KM, Martyn K, Martin J, Moran LM, Spera L.
Pediatric nurse practitioners: influences on career choice.
J Pediatr Health Care. Mar-Apr 2014;28(2):114-120.

Nyhan B, Reifler J, Richey S, Freed GL.
Effective messages in vaccine promotion: A randomized trial.
Pediatrics. Mar 2 2014; doi:10.1542/peds.2013-2365.

Yoon EY, Kopec K, McCool B, Freed GL, Rocchini A, Kershaw D, Hanauer D, Clark SJ.
Differences in blood pressure monitoring for children and adolescents with hypertension among pediatric cardiologists and pediatric nephrologists.
Clinical Peds. [In press]

Neef HC, Riebschleger MM, Adler J, Freed GL.
Meta Analysis: Rapid one hour infliximab infusions are safe.
Aliment Pharmacol Ther. Aug 2013;38(4):365-376.

Freed GL, Dunham KM, Martyn K, Nantais-Smith L, Moran LM, Spera L.
Neonatal nurse practitioners: Influences on Career Choice.
J Nurse Pract, 2014 [In press]

Chang J, Freed GL, Prosser L, Patel I, Erickson S, Bagozzi R, Balkrishnan R.
Associations between physician financial incentives and prescribing of anti-Asthmatic medications in children in U.S. outpatient settings.
J Child Health Care. June 2013;17(2):125-137.

Adler J, Sandberg KC, Shpeen BH, Eder S, Clark SJ, Freed GL.
Variation in Infliximab Administration Practices in the Treatment of Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease.
J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. Jul 2013;57(1):35-38..

Freed GL, Spike N, Sewell J, Moran L, Britt H, Valenti L, Brooks P.
Changes in longer consultations for children in general practice.
J Paediatr Child Health. Apr 2013;49(4):325-329.

Freed GL, Dunham KM, Gebremariam A.
Changes in hospitals' credentialing requirements for board certification from 2005 to 2010.
J Hosp Med. Mar 29 2013.

Macy ML, Clark SJ, Cunningham RM, Freed GL.
Availability of child passenger safety resources to emergency physicians practicing in emergency departments within pediatric, adult, and non-trauma centers: a national survey.
Pediatr Emerg Care. Mar 2013;29(3):324-330.

Freed GL, Dunham KM, Martyn K, Martin J, Moran LM, Spera L.
Pediatric Nurse Practitioners: Influences on Career Choice.
J Pediatr Health Care. Feb 11 2013.

Macy ML, Freed GL, Reed MP.
Child passenger restraints in relation to other second row passengers: an analysis of the 2007-2009 national survey of the use of booster seats.
Traffic Inj Prev. 2013;14(2):209-214.

Chang J, Freed GL, Prosser LA, Patel I, Erickson SR, Bagozzi RP, Balkrishnan R.
Comparisons of Health Care Utilization Outcomes in Children With Asthma Enrolled in Private Insurance Plans Versus Medicaid.
J Pediatr Health Care. Jan 8 2013.

Patrick SW, Freed GL.
Intergenerational enrollment and expenditure changes in Medicaid: trends from 1991 to 2005.
BMC Health Serv Res. 2012;12:327.

Freed GL, Dunham K, Moran L, Spera L.
Resident work hour changes in children‘s hospitals: impact on staffing patterns and workforce needs.
Pediatrics. Oct 2012;130(4):700-704.

Freed GL, Sewell J, Spike N, Brooks P, Moran L.
Changes in the demography of Australia and of general practitioner patient populations.
Aust Fam Physician. Sept 2012;41(9):715-719.

Macy ML, Freed GL.
Child passenger safety practices in the U.S.: disparities in light of updated recommendations.
Am J Prev Med. Sep 2012;43(3):272-281.

Yoon EY, Cohn L, Rocchini A, Kershaw D, Freed G, Ascione F, Clark S.
Use of diagnostic tests in adolescents with essential hypertension.
Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. Jul 23 2012:1-6.

Freed GL, Spike NA, Magin P, Morgan S, Fitzgerald M, Brooks P.
The paediatric clinical experiences of general practice registrars.
Aust Fam Physician. Jul 2012;41(7):529-533.

Raheja A, Freed GL.
So you want to be a camp doctor? Everything you need to know about medically supervised summer camps.
Contemp Pediatr. May 2012. [On-line exclusive]

Woolford SJ, Clark SJ, Sallinen BJ, Geiger JD, Freed GL.
Bariatric surgery decision making challenges: the stability of teens’ decisions and the treatment failure paradox.
Pediatr Surg Int. May 2012;28(5):455-460.

Macy ML, Clark SJ, Sasson C, Meurer WJ, Freed GL.
Emergency physician perspectives on child passenger safety: a national survey of attitudes and practices.
Acad Pediatr. Mar 2012;12(2):131-137.

Macy ML, Clark SJ, Freed GL, et al.
Carpooling and booster seats: a national survey of parents.
Pediatrics. Feb 2012;129(2):290-298.

Yoon EY, Cohn LM, Rocchini A, Kershaw D, Freed GL, Ascione F, Clark S.
Antihypertensive Prescribing Patterns for Adolescents with Primary Hypertension.
Pediatrics. Jan 2012;129(1):e1-8.

Davis MM, Butchart AT, Wheeler JR, Coleman MS, Singer DC, Freed GL.
Failure-to-success ratios, transition probabilities and phase lengths for prophylactic vaccines versus other pharmaceuticals in the development pipeline.
Vaccine. Nov 28 2011;29(51):9414-9416.

Macy ML, Reed MP, Freed GL.
Driver Report of Improper Seat Belt Position among 4- to 9-year-old Children.
Acad Pediatr. Nov-Dec 2011;11(6):487-492.

Dempsey AF, Schaffer S, Singer D, Butchart A, Davis MM, Freed GL.
Alternative vaccination schedule preference among parents of young children.
Pediatrics. Nov 2011;128(5):848-856.

Freed GL, Sewell J, Spike N.
Challenges to Children's Health Care in an Ageing Australia.
Med J Aust. Oct 17 2011;195(8):436-437.

Freed GL, Dunham KM, Loveland-Cherry C, Martyn KK, Moote MJ.
Private Practice Rates among Pediatric Subspecialists.
Pediatrics. Oct 2011;128(4):673-676.

Freed GL, Dunham KM, Loveland-Cherry C, Martyn KK, Moote MJ.
Nurse Practitioners and Physician Assistants Employed by General and Subspecialty Pediatricians.
Pediatrics. Oct 2011;128(4):665-672.

McCormick MC, Flores G, Freed GL, Homer CJ, Johnson KB, Defriese GH.
Challenge to Child Health Services Research: Report From the Committee on Pediatric Health and Health Care Quality Measures.
Acad Pediatr. July - August 2011;11(4):257-259.

Fredericks EM, Dore-Stites D, Lopez MJ, Well A, Shieck V, Freed GL, Eder SJ, Magee JC.
Transition of pediatric liver transplant recipients to adult care: patient and parent perspectives.
Pediatr Transplant. Jun 2011;15(4):414-424.

Eisenberg D, Prosser LA, Freed GL, Davis MM, Singer D.
Valuing health at different ages: evidence from a nationally representative survey in the US.
Applied Health Economics and Health Policy. May 1 2011;9(3):149-156.

Freed GL, Clark SJ, Butchart AT, Singer DC, Davis MM.
Sources and perceived credibility of vaccine safety information for parents.
Pediatrics. May 2011;127 Suppl 1:S107-112.

Clark SJ, Cowan AE, Freed GL.
Private-sector vaccine purchase costs and insurer payments: a disincentive for using combination vaccines?
Hum Vaccin. Apr 1 2011;7(4):426-428.

Davis RN, Davis MM, Freed GL, Clark SJ.
Fathers' depression related to positive and negative parenting behaviors with one-year-old children.
Pediatrics. Apr 2011;127(4):612-618.

Woolford SJ, Sallinen BJ, Clark SJ, Freed GL.
Results From a clinical multidisciplinary weight management program.
Clin Pediatr (Phila). Mar 2011;50(3):187-191.

Freed GL, Clark SJ, Cowan AE, Coleman MS.
Primary care physician perspectives on providing adult vaccines.
Vaccine. Feb 17 2011;29(9):1850-1854.

Moseley KL, Goold SD, Freed GL.
Which sources of child health advice do parents follow?
Clin Pediatr. Jan 2011;50(1):50-56.

Freed GL, Dunham KM, Lamarand KE, Love-land Cherry C, Martyn KK, The Research Advisory Committee of the American Board of Pediatrics.
Pediatric nurse practitioners: roles and scope of practice.
Pediatrics. 2010;126(5):846-50.

Freed GL, Dunham KM, Lamarand KE, Love-land Cherry C, Martyn KK, The Research Advisory Committee of the American Board of Pediatrics.
Neonatal nurse practitioners: distribution, roles and scope of practice.
Pediatrics. 2010;126(5):856-60.

Freed GL, Dunham KM, Love-land Cherry C, Martyn KK, The Research Advisory Committee of the American Board of Pediatrics.
Family nurse practitioners: roles and scope of practice in the care of pediatric patients.
Pediatrics. 2010;126(5):861-4.

Freed GL, Dunham KM, Moote MJ, Lamarand KE, The Research Advisory Committee of the American Board of Pediatrics.
Pediatric physician assistants: distribution and scope of practice.
Pediatrics. 2010;126(5):851-5.

Freed GL, Dunham KM, Loveland-Cherry CJ, Martyn KK, The Research Advisory Committee of the American Board of Pediatrics.
Pediatric nurse practitioners in the United States: current distribution and recent trends in training.
J Pediatr 2010;157(4):589-93.

Freed GL, Dunham KM, Jones Jr. MD, McGuinness GA, Althouse LA.
Longitudinal assessment of the timing of career choice among pediatric residents.
Archives of Pediatric & Adolescent Medicine 2010;164(10):961-4.

Woolford SJ, Clark SJ, Gebremariam A, Davis MM, Freed GL.
Physicians' perspectives on referring obese adolescents to pediatric multidisciplinary weight management programs.
Clin Pediatr. 2010;49(9):871-875.

Yoon EY, Clark SJ, Gorman R, Nelson S, O'Connor KG, Freed GL.
Differences in pediatric drug information sources used by general versus subspecialist pediatricians.
Clin Pediatr. 2010;49(8):743-749.

Fredericks EM, Dore-Stites D, Well A, Magee JC, Freed GL, Shieck V, Lopez MJ.
Assessment of transition readiness skills and adherence in pediatric liver transplant recipients.
Pediatr Transplant. Jun 27 2010.

Freed GL.
Patterns of care are changing: what will the future hold for pediatric practice?
Contemp Pediatr 2010:27(6);6.

Freed GL, Dunham KM, Gebremariam A, Wheeler JR.
Which pediatricians are providing care to America's children? An update on the trends and changes during the past 26 years.
J Pediatr 2010;157(1):148-152.

Freed GL, Dunham KM, Clark SJ, Davis MM. The Research Advisory Committee of the American Board of Pediatrics.
Perspectives and preferences regarding physician selection and board certification among the general public.
J Pediatr 2010;156(5);841-5.

Davis MM, Butchart A, Coleman M,Singer D, Wheeler J, Pok A, Freed GL.
The expanding vaccine development pipeline, 1995-2008.
Vaccine 2010;28;1353-6.

Woolford SJ, Clark SJ, Gebremariam A, Davis MM, Freed GL.
To cut or not to cut: physicians’ perspectives on referring adolescents for bariatric surgery.
Obes Surg. 2010;20(7):937-942.

Freed GL, Clark SJ, Butchart AT, Singer DC, Davis MM.
Parental vaccine safety concerns in 2009.
Pediatrics 2010;125(4):654-659.

Freed GL, Dunham KM, The Research Advisory Committee of the American Board of Pediatrics.
All primary care trainees are not the same: Differences in the role of economic factors and career choice.
Pediatrics 2010;125(3):574-577.

Dempsey AF, Freed GL.
Health care utilization by adolescents on Medicaid: Implications for delivering vaccines.
Pediatrics 2010;125(1):43-9.

Freed GL, Dunham KM, Lamarand KE, The Research Advisory Committee of the American Board of Pediatrics.
Permanent pediatric diplomate awareness of and perspectives on maintenance of certification.
J Pediatr 2009;155(6):919-23.

Stockman J, Freed GL.
The adequacy of the supply of pediatric subspecialists…so near, yet so far.
Arch Pediatr Adol Med 2009;163(12):1160-1.

Freed GL, National Vaccine Advisory Committee.
Financing vaccination of children and adolescents: National Vaccine Advisory Committee recommendations.
Pediatrics 2009;124:S558-62.

Lee JM, Pilli S, Gebremariam A, Keirns CC, Davis MM, Vijan S, Freed GL, Herman WH, Gurney JG.
Getting heavier, younger: trajectories of obesity over the life course.
Int J Obes (Lond) 2009;33:1330-40.

Freed GL, Dunham KM, Lamarand KE, The Research Advisory Committee of the American Board of Pediatrics.
Hospitalists’ involvement in pediatrics training: Perspectives from pediatric residency program and clerkship directors.
Acad Med 2009;84:1617-21.

Andreae MC, Switalski K, Abraham L, Freed GL.
Basis for immunization recommendations among countries of the World Health Organization’s European Region.
Human Vaccine 5(11):754-760, 2009

Andreae MC, Dunham KM, Freed GL.
Inadequate training in billing and coding as perceived by recent pediatric graduates.
Clin Pediatr 2009;48(9):939-944.

Mayer ML, Skinner AC, Freed GL.
Interspecialty differences in the care of children with chronic or serious acute conditions: A review of the literature.
J Pediatr. 2009;154(2):164-8

Pickering LK, Baker CJ, Freed GL, Gall SA, Grogg SE, Poland GA, et al.
Immunization programs for infants, children, adolescents, and adults: Clinical practice guidelines by the infectious diseases society of America.
Clin Infect Dis 2009;49(6):817-40.

Freed GL, Dunham KM, Singer D.
Health plan use of board certification and recertification of surgeons and non-surgical subspecialists in contracting policies.
Arch Surg. 2009; Aug;144(8):753-8.

Freed GL, Dunham KM, Singer D.
Use of board certification and recertification in hospital privileging: Policies for general surgeons, surgical specialists, and non-surgical subspecialists.
Arch Surg. 2009; Aug;144(8):746-52.

Freed GL, Dunham KM, Switalski KE, The Research Advisory Committee of the American Board of Pediatrics.
Assessing the value of pediatric hospitalists programs: The perspective of hospital leaders.
Ambul Pediatr. 2009;9(3):192-6.

Andreae MC, Switalski K, Abraham L, Freed GL.
National immunization advisory committees of the World Health Organization’s European region.
Vaccine 2009;27;3131-6.

Freed GL, Stockman JA.
Oversimplifying primary care supply and shortages.
JAMA 2009;301(18):1920-2.

Yoon EY, Freed GL, Davis MM, Clark SJ.
Formulary coverage for lipid-lowering drugs recommended for children.
Clil Pediatr 2009 Jul;48(6):609-13.

Freed GL, Dunham KM, The Research Advisory Committee of the American Board of Pediatrics.
Pediatric hospitalists: Training, current practice and career goals.
J Hosp Med. 2009;Mar;4(3):;157-63.

Freed GL, Dunham KM, The Research Advisory Committee of the American Board of Pediatrics.
Characteristics of pediatric hospital medicine fellowships and training programs.
J Hosp Med. 2009;4(3):157-63.

Odetola FO, Clark SJ, Gurney JG, Dechert R, Shanley T, Freed GL.
Effect of interhospital transfer on resource utilization and outcomes at a tertiary pediatric intensive care unit.
J Crit Care. Sep 2009;24(3):379-386.

Freed GL.
Then and now: Varicella vaccine.
Contemp Pediatr 2009:26(2);28-9.

Freed GL, The National Vaccine Advisory Committee.
Adolescent vaccination: Recommendations from the National Vaccine Advisory Committee.
Am J Prev Med. 2009;36(3):278-9.

Dunham KM, Singer D, Freed GL.
Use of board certification in ambulatory survey center credentialing: A pilot study.
J Healthc Manag 2009;54(1):31-43.

Freed GL, Dunham KM, Abraham L, The Research Advisory Committee of the American Board of Pediatrics.
Protecting the public: State medical board licensure policies for active and inactive physicians.
Pediatrics. 2009;123(2):643-52.

Freed GL, Dunham KM, Switalski KE.
Clinical inactivity among pediatricians: Prevalence and perspectives.
Pediatrics. 2009;123(2):605-10.

Freed GL, Dunham KM, Switalski KE, Jones Jr. MD, McGuinness GA and The Research Advisory Committee of the American Board of Pediatrics.
Recently trained pediatric subspecialists: Perspectives on residency, fellowship, and scope of practice.
Pediatrics. 2009;123(1):S44-9.

Freed GL, Dunham KM, Switalski KE, Jones Jr. MD, McGuinness GA and The Research Advisory Committee of the American Board of Pediatrics.
Recently trained general pediatricians: Perspectives on residency training and scope of practice.
Pediatrics. 2009;123(1):S38-43.

Freed GL, Dunham KM, Switalski KE, Jones Jr. MD, McGuinness GA and The Research Advisory Committee of the American Board of Pediatrics.
Pediatric fellows: Perspectives on training and future scope of practice.
Pediatrics. 2009;123(1):S31-7.

Freed GL, Dunham KM, Jones Jr. MD, McGuinness GA, Althouse LA and The Research Advisory Committee of the American Board of Pediatrics.
General pediatrics resident perspectives on training decisions and career choice.
Pediatrics. 2009;123(1):S26-30.

Yoon EY, Davis, MM, Rocchini A, Kershaw D, Freed GL.
Medical management of children with primary hypertension by pediatric subspecialists.
Pediatr Nephrol 2009 24:147-153.

Dempsey AF, Freed GL.
Adolescent vaccination: If you build it, will they come?
J Adolesc Health 2008;43(6):523-4.

Freed GL, Cowan AE, Clark SJ.
Variation in provider vaccine purchase prices and payer reimbursement.
Pediatrics 2008;122:1325-31.

Freed GL, Cowan AE, Gregory S, Clark SJ.
Primary care physician perspectives on reimbursement for childhood immunizations.
Pediatrics 2008;122:1319-24.

Yoon EY, Freed GL.
The need for and creation of a comprehensive pediatric research network.
Paediatr Drugs 2008;10:279-80.

Freed GL, The National Vaccine Advisory Committee.
Mandates for adolescent immunizations: Recommendations from the National Vaccine Advisory Committee.
Am J Prev Med 2008;35:145-51.

Freed GL, The National Vaccine Advisory Committee.
The promise and challenge of adolescent immunization.
Am J Prev Med 2008:35:152-7.

Van Cleave JM, Woodruff B, Freed GL.
Differences in characteristics among new pediatric neurology patients: The effect of a newly established private pediatric neurology practice.
Ambul Pediatr 2008;8:104-8.

Freed GL, Dunham KM, Althouse L, The Research Advisory Committee of the American Board of Pediatrics.
Characteristics of general and subspecialty pediatricians who choose not to recertify.
Pediatrics 2008;121:711-7.

Freed GL.
The structure and function of immunization advisory committees in Western Europe.
Hum Vaccin 2008;4;292-7.

Dempsey A, Freed GL.
HPV vaccination: Expected impacts and unresolved issues.
J Pediatr 2008;152:305-9.

Lee J, Davis MM, Menon R, Freed GL.
Geographic distribution of childhood diabetes and obesity relative to the supply of pediatric endocrinologists in the U.S.
J Pediatr 2008;152:331-6.

Lee J, Okumura M, Freed GL, Menon R, Davis MM.
Trends in hospitalizations for diabetes among children and young adults: United States, 1993-2004.
Diabetes Care 2007;30:3035-9.

Freed GL, Abraham LM, Brzoznowski KF.
Inactive physicians: The state of our understanding.
J Pediatr 2007;151:431-4.

Freed GL.
Expanding the research continuum: From bench to implementation.
Pediatr Res 2007;62:370-3.114.

Freed GL.
Lessons from across the pond: What the U.S. can learn from European immunization programs.
Vaccine 2007;25:6148-57.

Freed GL, Brzoznowski KF, Neighbors K, Lakhani I, The Research Advisory Committee of the American Board of Pediatrics.
Characteristics of the pediatric hospitalist workforce: Its roles and work environment.
Pediatrics 2007;120:33-9.

Freed GL, Uren RL, Hudson EJ, Lakhani I.
Who claims to be a pediatrician?
J Pediatr 2007;150:645-8.

Tarini BA, Freed GL.
Keeping up with the newborn screening revolution.
Contemp Pediatr 2007;24:36-49.

Moseley KL, Freed GL, Bullard CM, Goold SD.
Measuring African-American parents’ cultural mistrust while in a healthcare setting: a pilot study.
J Natl Med Assoc 2007;99:15-21.

Odetola FO, Gebremariam A, Freed GL.
Patient and hospital correlates of clinical outcomes and resource utilization in severe pediatric sepsis.
Pediatrics 2007;119:487-94.

Eisenberg D, Freed GL.
Reassessing how society prioritizes the health of young people.
Health Aff 2007;26:1-10.

Pollack HA, Wheeler JRC, Cowan AE, Freed GL.
The impact of managed care enrollment on emergency department use among children with special heath care needs.
Med Care 2007;45:139-45.

Odetola FO, Shanley TP, Gurney JG, Clark SJ, Dechert RE, Freed GL, Davis MM.
Characteristics and outcomes of inter-hospital transfers from Level II to Level I pediatric intensive care units.
Pediatr Crit Care Med 2006;7:536-40.

Dempsey AF, Freed GL.
A new day in preventing meningococcal disease: Sizing up the available vaccines.
Contemp Pediatr 2006;23:31-9.

Richmond T, Freed GL, Clark SJ, Cabana MD.
Guidelines for adolescent well-care: Is there consensus?
Curr Opin Pediatr 2006;18:365-70.

Freed GL, The Research Advisory Committee of the American Board of Pediatrics.
Comparing perceptions of training for medicine-pediatrics and categorically trained physicians.
Pediatrics 2006;118:1104-8.

Freed GL, Cowan AE, Clark SJ, Santoli JM, Bradley J.
Use of a new combined vaccine in pediatric practices.
Pediatrics 2006;118:e251-7.

Freed GL, Uren RL.
Pay-for-performance: An overview for pediatrics.
J Pediatr 2006;149:120-4.

Freed GL, Hudson EJ.
Transitioning children with chronic diseases to adult care: Current knowledge, practices and direction.
J Pediatr 2006;148:824-7.

Freed GL, Nahra TA, Wheeler JRC, The Research Advisory Committee of the American Board of Pediatrics.
Counting physicians: Inconsistencies in a commonly used source for workforce analysis.
Acad Med 2006;81:847-52.

Freed GL, Uren RL.
Hospitalists in children’s hospitals: What we know now and what we need to know.
J Pediatr 2006;148:296-9.

Freed GL, Uren RL, Hudson EJ, Lakhani I, Wheeler JRC, Stockman J, The Research Advisory Committee of the American Board of Pediatrics.
Policies and practices related to the role of board certification/recertification of pediatricians in hospital privileging.
JAMA 2006:295;905-12.

Freed GL, Singer D, Lakhani I, Wheeler JRC, Stockman J, The Research Advisory Committee of the American Board of Pediatrics.
Use of board certification and recertification in health plan credentialing policies.
JAMA 2006;295:913-8.

Freed GL, Fant KE, Nahra TA, Wheeler JR, The Research Advisory Committee of the American Board of Pediatrics.
Internal medicine-pediatrics physicians: Their care of children versus care of adults.
Acad Med 2005;80:858-65.

Freed GL.
Vaccine policies across the pond: looking at the US and UK systems.
Health Affairs 2005;24:755-7.

Andreae MC, Freed GL, Katz SL.
Safety concerns regarding combination vaccines: Perspective of select European Countries.
Human Vaccines, 2005;1:1-5.

Kemper AR, Cowan AE, Ching PL, Davis MM, Kennedy EJ, Clark SJ, Freed GL.
Hospital decision-making regarding the smallpox pre-event vaccination program.
Biosecur Bioterror 2005;3:23-30.

Odetola FO, Clark SJ, Freed GL, Bratton SL, Davis MM.
A national survey of pediatric critical care resources in the United States.
Pediatrics 2005;115:e382-e386.

Freed GL, Nahra T, Venus P, Schech S, Wheeler JRC.
Changes in the proportion and volume of care provided to children by generalists and subspecialists.
J Pediatr 2005;146:14-9.

Andreae MC, Fawley M, Freed GL.
Hitting the mark . . . sometimes: Improve the accuracy of CPT code distribution.
MGMA Connex 2005;5:39-43.

Freed GL, Nahra T, Wheeler, JRC.
The relationship of per-capita income and gross domestic product to the supply and distribution of pediatricians in the United States.
J Pediatr 2004;144:723-8.

Moseley KL, Church A, Hempel B, Yuan H, Goold SD, Freed GL.
End-of-life choices for African-American and white infants in a neonatal intensive-care unit: a pilot study.
J Natl Med Assoc 2004;96:933-7.

Andreae MC, Freed GL, Katz SL.
Safety concerns regarding combination vaccines: The experience in Japan.
Vaccine 2004;22:3911-6.

Pribble, JM, Maio, RF, Freed GL.
Parental perceptions regarding mandatory mouthguard use in competitive youth soccer.
Injury Prevention 2004;10:159-62.

Dombkowski KJ, Lantz PM, Freed GL.
Role of health insurance and a usual source of medical care in age-appropriate vaccination.
Am J Public Health 2004; 94:960-6.

Aiken, KD, Freed GL, Davis, MM.
When insurance status isn’t static: insurance transitions of low-income children and implications for health and health care.
Amb Pediatr 2004;4:237-43.

Pollock, HP, Dombkowski KJ, Zimmerman, JB, Davis, MM, Cowan, A, Wheeler, JR, Freed GL.
Emergency department use among Michigan children with special health care needs.
Health Services Research 2004;39:665-92.

Freed GL.
Criteria for choosing a specific vaccine.
Arch Pediatr Adol Med 2004;158:311.

Dombkowski KD, Lantz P, Freed GL.
Risk factors for delay in age-appropriate vaccination.
Public Health Reports 2004;119:144-55.

Freed GL, Fant K.
The impact of the ‘Aging of America’ on children.
Health Affairs 2004;23:168-74.

Kemper AR, Bruckman D, Freed GL.
Prevalence and distribution of corrective lenses among school-age children.
Optometry and Vision Science 2004;81:7-10.

Freed GL, Nahra T, Wheeler JRC.
Which physicians are providing health care to America’s children? Trends and changes over the last 20 years.
Arch Pediatr Adol Med 2004;158:22-6.

Freed GL, Clark SJ, Hibbs BF, Santoli J.
Parental vaccine safety concerns: the experiences of pediatricians and family physicians.
Am J Prev Med 2004;26:11-4.

Davis MM, Ndiaye SM, Freed GL, Clark SJ.
One-year uptake of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine: a national survey of family physicians and pediatricians.
J Am Board Fam Pract 2003;16:363-71.

Freed GL, Jee S, Stein L, Spera L, Clark, SA.
Comparing the self-reported referral and management preferences of pediatricians and family physicians for children with Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis.
J Rheumatol 2003;30:2700-4.

Andreae MC, Freed GL.
The rationale for productivity-based physician compensation at academic health centers.
J Pediatr 2003;143:695-6.

Freed GL, Nahra TA, Wheeler JRC.
Predicting the pediatric workforce: Use of trend analysis.
J Pediatr 2003;143:570-5.

Kemper AR, Bruckman D, Freed GL.
Receipt of specialty eye care by children.
Ambul Pediatr 2003;3:270-4.

Davis MM, Ndiaye SM, Freed GL, Kim CS, Clark SJ.
The influence of insurance status and vaccine cost on physicians’ administration on pneumococcal conjugate vaccine.
Pediatrics 2003;112:521-6.

Freed GL, Davis MM, Clark SJ.
Variation in public and private supply of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine during a shortage.
JAMA 2003;289:575-8.

Freed GL, Andreae MC, Cowan AE, Katz SL.
Vaccine safety policy analysis in three European countries: the case of thimerosal.
Health Policy 2002;62:291-307.

Richmond TK, Freed GL.
The plague of the Game Boy: An index of suspicion Case.
Pediatrics In Review 2002;23:249-53.

Davis MM, Zimmerman JL, Wheeler JRC, Freed GL.
The costs of childhood vaccine purchase in the public sector: past trends, future expectations.
Am J Pub Health 2002;92:1982-7.

Lieu TA, Finkelstein JA, Adams MM, Miroshnik IL, Lett SM, Palfrey S, Freed GL, Kleinman K, Ray GT, Platt R.
Pediatricians’ views on financial barriers and values for pneumococcal vaccine for children.
Ambul Pediatr 2002;2:358-66.

Cabana MD, Aiken KD, Davis MM, Freed GL, Clark SJ.
Effect of state vaccine financing strategy on nursery immunization policies.
Ambul Pediatr 2002;2:367-74.

Andreae MC, Freed GL.
Using a productivity-based physician compensation program at an academic health center: A case study.
Acad Med 2002;77:894-9.

Freed GL, Davis MM, Andreae MC, Bass S, Weinblatt H.
Reimbursement for Prevnar: A modern day version of Hercules and the Hydra.
Pediatrics 2002;110:399-400.

Freed GL, Andreae MA, Cowan AE, Katz SL.
The process of public policy formulation: The case of thimerosal in vaccines.
Pediatrics 2002;109:1153-9.

Steyer TE, Freed GL, Lantz PM.
Medicaid reimbursement for alternative therapies.
Altern Ther Health Med 2002;8:84-8.

Dombkowski KJ, Lantz PM, Freed GL.
The need for surveillance of delays in age-appropriate vaccination.
Am J Prev Med 2002;23:36-42.

Kemper AR, Davis MM, Freed GL.
Expected adverse events in a universal smallpox vaccination campaign.
Eff Clin Pract 2002;5:84-90.

Kemper AR, Freed GL.
Hospitalists and residency medical education: measured improvement. [letter; comment].
Arch Pediatr Adol Med 2002;156:858-9.

Freed GL.
Challenges in the development of pediatric health services research.
J Pediatr 2002;140:1-2.

Davis MM, Andreae MA, Freed GL.
Brief report: Physicians’ early challenges related to the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine.
Ambul Pediatr 2001;1:302-5.

Clark SJ, Cabana MD, Malik T, Yusuf H, Freed GL.
Hepatitis B vaccination practices in hospital newborn nurseries before and after changes in vaccination recommendations.
Arch Ped Adolesc Med 2001;155:915-20.

Andreae MA, Freed GL.
A new paradigm in academic health centers: Productivity-based physician compensation.
Med Group Manage J 2001;48:44-54.

Cabana MD, Medzihradsky OF, Rubin HR, Freed GL.
Applying clinical guidelines to pediatric practice.
Pediatr Ann 2001;30:274-82.

Freed GL, DeFriese GH, Williams D, Behar L.
Preventive Service Delivery for Children in a Managed Care Environment: Contrasts and Lessons from Israel.
Health Policy 2000;55:209-25.

Freed GL, Clark SJ, Cowan AE.
State-level perspectives on immunization policies, practices, and program financing in the 1990s.
Am J Prev Med 2000;19:32-44.

Fairbrother G, Freed GL, Thompson J.
Measuring immunization coverage.
Am J Prev Med 2000;19:79-89.

Rushton JL, Clark, SJ, Freed GL.
Primary care role in the management of childhood depression: A comparison of pediatricians and family physicians.
Pediatrics 2000;105:957-62.

Rushton JL, Clark, SJ, Freed GL.
Pediatrician and family physician prescription of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors.
Pediatrics 2000;105:e82.

Guise JM, Freed GL.
Resident physicians’ knowledge of breast-feeding and infant growth.
Birth 2000;27:49-53.

Freeman V, Freed GL.
Parental knowledge, attitudes, and demand regarding a vaccine to prevent varicella.
Am J Prev Med 1999;17:153-5.

Freed GL, Pathman DE, Konrad TR, Freeman VA, Clark SJ.
Adopting immunization recommendations: A new dissemination model.
Matern Child Health J 1999;2:231-9.

Freed GL, Clark SJ, Pathman DE, Schectman R, Serling J.
Impact of North Carolina’s universal vaccine purchase program by children’s insurance status.
Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 1999;153:748-54.

Freed GL, Clark SJ, Pathman DE, Schectman R.
Influences on the receipt of well-child visits in the first two years of life.
Pediatrics 1999;103:864-9.

Freed GL, Freeman VA, Mauskopf A.
Age-appropriate immunization laws: a randomized trial of information dissemination.
Amb Child Health 1999;5:43-51.

Clark SJ, Freed GL.
Use of public immunization services after initiation of universal vaccine purchase.
Arch Ped Adolesc Med 1998;152:642-5.

Freed GL, Kauf T, Freeman VA, Pathman DE, Konrad TR.
Vaccine-associated liability risk and provider immunization practices.
Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 1998;152:285-9.

Pathman DE, Stevens CM, Freed GL, Jones BD, Konrad TR.
Disseminating pediatric immunization recommendations: the physician perspective.
Amb Child Health 1998;4:265-76.

Gugelmann RJ, Freed GL, Desgrandchamps D, Diepold P.
Hepatitis-B-impfung: Kenntnisse und akzeptanz bei schweizer äzten./Vaccination contre l’hépatite B: Opinions et connaissances des médecins suisses.
Sozial-Präventivmedizin 1998;43(S1);57-60 (German), 130-3 (French).

Freed GL, Freeman VA, Mauskopf A.
Enforcement of age-appropriate immunization laws.
Am J Prev Med 1998;14:118-21.

Freed GL, Clark SJ, Pathman DE, Konrad TR, Biddle AK, Schectman RM.
Impact of a new universal purchase vaccine program in North Carolina.
Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 1997;151:1117-24.

Bordley CW, Dempsey-Tanner T, Freed GL, Lister ME.
Challenges to private provider participation in immunization registries.
Am J Prev Med 1997;13:66-70.

Freed GL, Clark SJ, Konrad TR, Pathman DE.
Factors affecting physicians’ early adoption of combined DTP-Hib vaccine.
Amb Child Health 1997;3:27-33.

Freed GL, Freeman VA, Konrad TR, Pathman DE, Clark SJ.
Sources of immunization information for physicians.
Amb Child Health 1997;2:329-37.

Freed GL, Katz SL, Clark SJ.
Safety of Vaccinations: Miss America, the media, and public health.
JAMA 1996;276:1869-72.

Freed GL, Clark SJ.
Advising breastfeeding mothers when they become ill.
Contemp OB/GYN 1996;41:43-54.

Pathman DE, Konrad TR, Freed GL, Freeman VA, Koch GG.
The awareness-to-adherence model of the steps to clinical guideline compliance: The case of pediatric vaccine recommendations.
Med Care 1996;34:873-889.

Freed GL, Freeman VA, Clark SJ, Konrad TR, Pathman DE.
Pediatrician and family physician agreement with and adoption of universal hepatitis B immunization.
J Fam Pract 1996;42:587-92.

Freed GL, Clark SJ, Harris BG, Lowdermilk DL.
Methods and outcomes of breastfeeding instruction for nursing students.
J Hum Lact 1996;12:105-10.

Freed GL, Clark SJ.
Educating ourselves about breastfeeding.
Focus & Opinion: Pediatrics 1996;2:196-206.

Freed GL, Clark SJ, Konrad TR, Pathman DE.
Variation in patient charges for vaccines and well-child care.
Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 1996;150:421-6.

Freed GL, Clark SJ.
Breastfeeding and maternal illness.
Contemp Ped 1996;13:49-61.

Freed GL, Pathman DE.
The Vaccines For Children program: Issues of physician accountability and patient verification.
J Pub Health Manag Pract 1996;2:12-7.

Freed GL, Clark SJ, Cefalo R, Sorenson J.
Breast-feeding education of obstetrics-gynecology residents and practitioners.
Am J Obstet Gynecol 1995;173:1607-13.

Freed GL, Clark SJ, Lohr JA, Sorenson J.
Pediatrician involvement in breast-feeding promotion: A national study of residents and practitioners.
Pediatrics 1995;96:490-4.

Freed GL, Abu-Saad K, Margolis CZ.
Reform of child immunization service delivery in Israel.
JAMA 1995;273:1909-12.

Freed GL, Clark SJ, Curtis P, Sorenson J.
Breastfeeding education and practice in family medicine.
J Fam Pract 1995;40:263-9.

Freed GL, Clark SJ, Sorenson J, Lohr JA, Cefalo RC, Curtis P.
National assessment of physicians’ breast-feeding knowledge, attitudes, training, and experience.
JAMA 1995;273:472-6.

Bordley WC, Freed GL, Garrett JM, Byrd CA, Meriwether R.
Factors responsible for immunization referrals to health departments in North Carolina.
Pediatrics 1994;94:376-80.

Freed GL, Bordley WC, Clark SJ, Konrad TR.
Universal hepatitis B immunization of infants: Reactions of pediatricians and family physicians over time.
Pediatrics 1994;93:747-51.

Freed GL.
Wegener's granulomatosis presenting as fever of unknown origin.
Clin Pediatr 1994;33:162-5.

Freed GL, Katz SL.
The Comprehensive Childhood Immunization Act of 1993: Toward a more rational approach.
N Engl J Med 1993;329:1957-60.

Goldstein AO, Freed GL.
Breastfeeding counseling practices of family practice residents.
Fam Med 1993;25:254-9.

Freed GL, Fraley JK, Schanler RJ.
Accuracy of expectant mothers' predictions of fathers' attitudes regarding breastfeeding.
J Fam Pract 1993;37:148-52.

Freed GL, Fraley JK.
Effect of expectant mothers' feeding plan on prediction of fathers' attitudes regarding breastfeeding.
Am J Perinatol 1993;10:300-3.

Freed GL, Bordley WC, Clark SJ, Konrad TR.
Reactions of pediatricians to a new Centers for Disease Control recommendation for universal immunization of infants with hepatitis B vaccine.
Pediatrics 1993;91:699-702.

Freed GL, Bordley WC, DeFriese GH.
Childhood immunization programs: An analysis of policy issues.
Milbank Q 1993;71:65-96.

Freed GL.
Breastfeeding: Time to teach what we preach.
JAMA 1993;269:243-5.

Freed GL, Fraley JK, Jones TM.
Assessment of pediatric housestaff attitudes and education toward breastfeeding.
So Med J 1992;85:483-5.

Freed GL, Fraley JK.
Lack of agreement of tympanic membrane temperature assessments with conventional methods in a private practice setting.
Pediatrics 1992;89:384-6.

Freed GL, Landers S, Schanler RJ.
A practical guide to successful breastfeeding management.
Am J Dis Child 1991;145:917-21.

Freed GL, Konrad TR, DeFriese GH, Lohr JA.
Adoption of a new Haemophilus influenzae, type b vaccine recommendation.
Am J Dis Child 1993;147:124-8.

Freed GL, Bordley WC, Clark SJ, Konrad TR.
Family physician acceptance of universal hepatitis B immunization of infants.
J Fam Pract 1993;36:153-7.

Freed GL, Jones TM, Schanler RJ.
Prenatal determination of demographic and attitudinal factors regarding feeding practice in an indigent population.
Am J Perinatol 1992;9:420-4.

Freed GL, Fraley JK, Schanler RJ.
Prenatal attitudes of fathers regarding breastfeeding.
Pediatrics 1992;89:224-7.